Toxicidad hepática causada por medicamentos: revisión estucturada

  • Alejandra Cano Paniagua Universidad de Antioquia
  • Laura Milena Cifuentes Posada Grupo de Promoción y Prevención Farmacéutica
  • Pedro José Amariles Muñoz Universidad de Antioquia
Palabras clave: Enfermedad hepática, daño hepático inducido por medicamentos

Resumen

Objetivos: Elaborar un listado actualizado de medicamentos causantes de hepatotoxicidad e identificar, de acuerdo con la evidencia científica, los medicamentos con mayor probabilidad de causar hepatotoxicidad.

Método: Se realizó una búsqueda en PubMed/Medline utilizando términos Mesh: “Liver disease” y “Drug-induced Liver Injury”. La búsqueda se filtró por: reportes de casos, revisiones, ensayos clínicos, meta-análisis y cartas, hasta diciembre de 2015, en inglés, español y francés. Se incluyeron artículos con evidencia de hepatotoxicidad causada por medicamentos y referencias relevantes; fueron excluidos artículos sin relación con los objetivos de la búsqueda, relacionados con hepatotoxicidad por agentes diferentes, concernientes a otras causas de enfermedad hepática y/o relacionados con ensayos predictivos o células madre. Algunos aspectos de los medicamentos hepatotóxicos fueron: aparición de hepatotoxicidad, tipo de lesión, mecanismos de hepatotoxicidad, factores de riesgo y manifestaciones clínicas. Para valorar la probabilidad de aparición de hepatotoxicidad y del tipo de lesión se establecieron 3 categorías: Definida, probable y posible.

Resultados: Se identificaron 610 artículos de los cuales se eligieron 402, se excluyeron 208 artículos. Se elaboró un listado con 181 medicamentos y 17 formas farmacéuticas combinadas o regímenes terapéuticos con probabilidad de causar hepatotoxicidad, de estos, 6 medicamentos tuvieron probabilidad definida (metotrexato, minociclina, vancomicina, everolimus, isoniazida y tamoxifeno).

Conclusiones: Se identificaron más de 180 medicamentos hepatotóxicos, 6 tienen una probabilidad definida, mientras que para la mayoría es posible. La consolidación de la información demostró que diversas categorías de medicamentos tienen mayor probabilidad de ser causantes de toxicidad hepática.

Descargas

La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.

Biografía del autor/a

Alejandra Cano Paniagua, Universidad de Antioquia
Química farmacéutica y estudiante de Maestría
Laura Milena Cifuentes Posada, Grupo de Promoción y Prevención Farmacéutica
Química farmacéutica. Investigadora
Pedro José Amariles Muñoz, Universidad de Antioquia
Químico farmacéutico. Profesor vinculado de tiempo completo

Citas

Ibáñez L, Pérez E, Vidal X, Laporte J. Prospective surveillance of acute serious liver disease unrelated to infectious, obstructive, or metabolic diseases: Epidemiological and clinical features, and exposure to drugs. J Hepatol. 2002;37(5):592–600.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-8278(02)00231-3

Fernández-Castañer A, García-Cortés M, Lucena M, Borraz Y, Peláez G, Costa J, et al. An analysis of the causes, characteristics, and consequences of reexposure to a drug or compound responsible for a hepatotoxicity event. Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 2008;100(5):278–84.

Lee W. Drug-Induced Hepatotoxicity. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:474–85.

https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra021844

Chen M, Borlak J, Tong W. High lipophilicity and high daily dose of oral medications are associated with significant risk for drug-induced liver injury. Hepatology. 2013;58(1):388–96.

https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.26208

Tejada F. Hepatotoxicidad por Fármacos. Rev clínica Med Fam. 2010;3(3):177–91.

Sgro C, Clinard F, Ouazir K, Chanay H, Allard C, Guilleminet C, et al. Incidence of drug-induced hepatic injuries: A French population-based study. Hepatology. 2002;36(2):451–5.

https://doi.org/10.1053/jhep.2002.34857

Martí L, Olmo J, Tosca J, Ornia E, Serra M, Rodríguez F, et al. Clinical evaluation of drug-induced hepatitis. Rev Esp Enfermedades Dig. 2005;97(4):258–65.

https://doi.org/10.4321/S1130-01082005000400006

Hernández N, Bessone F, Sánchez A, Di Pace M, Brahm J, Zapata R, et al. Profile of idiosyncratic drug induced liver injury in Latin America. An analysis of published reports. Ann Hepatol. 2014;13(2):231–9.

Liss G, Lewis J. Drug-induced liver injury: what was new in 2008? Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2009;5(8):843–60.

https://doi.org/10.1517/17425250903018904

Ghabril M, Fontana R, Rockey D, Gu J, Chalasani N. Drug Induced Liver Injury Caused by Intramuscular Administered Medications: The Drug Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) Experience. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2013;47(6):553–8.

https://doi.org/10.1097/MCG.0b013e318276bf00

Larrey D. Epidemiology and individual susceptibility to adverse drug reactions affecting the liver. Semin Liver Dis. 2002;22(2):145–55.

https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2002-30101

https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2002-30105

Ramachandran R, Kakar S. Histological patterns in drug-induced liver disease. J Clin Pathol. 2009;62:481–92.

https://doi.org/10.1136/jcp.2008.058248

Fisher K, Vuppalanchi R, Saxena R. Drug-Induced Liver Injury. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2015;139:876–87.

https://doi.org/10.5858/arpa.2014-0214-RA

Castell J, Mi-ana M. Hepatitis inducida por tóxicos. Mecanismos de toxicidad y patrones de lesión. GH Contin. 2003;2(5):190–6.

Lee WM. Drug Induced Hepatotoxicity. N Engl J Med. 1995;333:1118–27.

https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199510263331706

Kaplowitz N. Drug-Induced Liver Injury. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38(Suppl 2):44–8.

https://doi.org/10.1086/381446

Adams D, Ju C, Ramaiah S, Uetrecht J, Jaeschke H. Mechanisms of immune-mediated liver injury. Toxicol Sci. 2010;115(2):307–21.

https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfq009

Grattagliano I, Bonfrate L, Diogo C, Wang H, Wang D, Portincasa P. Biochemical mechanisms in drug-induced liver injury: Certainties and doubts. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15(39):4865–76.

https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.15.4865

García-Cortés M, Andrade R, Lucena M, González-Grande R, Camargo R, Fernández-Bonilla E, et al. Hepatotoxicidad secundaria a fármacos de uso común. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005;28(8):461–72.

https://doi.org/10.1157/13079002

Tarantino G, Di Minno M, Capone D. Drug-induced liver injury: Is it somehow foreseeable? World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15(23):2817–33.

https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.15.2817

Bakke O, Manochia M, De Abajo F, Kaitin K, Lasagna L. Drug safety discontinuations in the United Kingdom, the United States, and Spain from 1974 through 1993: a regulatory perspective. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1995;58(1):108–17.

https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-9236(95)90078-0

Bénichou C. Criteria of drug-induced liver disorders Report of an International Consensus Meeting. J Hepatol. 1990;11:272–6.

https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-8278(90)90124-A

Kaplowitz N. Drug Induced – Hepatotoxicity. Ann Intern Med. 1986;104:826–39.

https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-104-6-826

Reuben A. Hy's Law. Hepatology. 2004;39(2):574–8.

https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.20081

Björnsson E. Drug-induced liver injury: Hy's rule revisited. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006;79(6):521–8.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clpt.2006.02.012

Pessayre D, Fromenty B, Berson A, Robin M-A, Lettéron P, Moreau R, et al. Central role of mitochondria in drug-induced liver injury. Drug Metab Rev. 2012;44(1):34–87.

https://doi.org/10.3109/03602532.2011.604086

Pessayre D, Mansouri A, Berson A, Fromenty B. Mitochondrial involvement in drug-induced liver injury. In: Adverse Drug Reactions, Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. 2010. p. 311–65.

https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-00663-0_11

Kass G, Price S. Role of Mitochondria in Drug-Induced Cholestatic Injury. Clin Liver Dis. 2008;12(1):27–51.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cld.2007.11.005

Labbe G, Pessayre D, Fromenty B. Drug-induced liver injury through mitochondrial dysfunction: mechanisms and detection during preclinical safety studies. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2008;22(4):335–53.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-8206.2008.00608.x

Amacher D. A toxicologist's guide to biomarkers of hepatic response. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2002;21:253–62.

https://doi.org/10.1191/0960327102ht247oa

Brunt E. Nonalcoholic steatohepatiiis (NASH): further expansion of this clinical entity? Liver. 1999;19:263–4.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1478-3231.1999.tb00047.x

Gunawan B, Kaplowitz N. Clinical perspectives on xenobiotic-induced hepatotoxicity. Drug Metab Rev. 2004;36(2):301–12.

https://doi.org/10.1081/DMR-120034148

Hayashi P, Fontana R. Clinical features, diagnosis, and natural history of drug-induced liver injury. Semin Liver Dis. 2014;34(2):134–44.

https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0034-1375955

Hewitt M, Enoch S, Madden J, Przybylak K, Cronin MT. Hepatotoxicity: A scheme for generating chemical categories for read-across, structural alerts and insights into mechanism(s) of action. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2013;43(7):537–58.

https://doi.org/10.3109/10408444.2013.811215

Kleiner D. The Pathology of Drug-Induced Liver Injury. Semin Liver Dis. 2009;29(4):364–72.

https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0029-1240005

Regev A, Seeff L, Merz M, Ormarsdottir S, Aithal G, Gallivan J, et al. Causality Assessment for Suspected DILI During Clinical Phases of Drug Development. Drug Saf. 2014;37(S1):S47–56.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s40264-014-0185-4

Lucena M, Camargo R, Andrade R, Perez-Sanchez C, Sanchez De La Cuesta F. Comparison of two clinical scales for causality assessment in hepatotoxicity. Hepatology. 2001;33(1):123–30.

https://doi.org/10.1053/jhep.2001.20645

Lucena M, Andrade R, Rodrigo L, Salmerón J, Alvarez A, López-Garrido M, et al. Trovafloxacin-Induced Acute Hepatitis. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;30:400–1.

https://doi.org/10.1086/313680

Andrade R, López-Ortega S. Hepatitis Tóxicas. Rev Espa-ola Enfermedades Dig. 2006;98(9):701.

https://doi.org/10.4321/S1130-01082006000900009

Björnsson E. Hepatotoxicity associated with antiepileptic drugs. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008;118(5):281–90.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01009.x

Amariles P, Giraldo N, Faus M. Interacciones medicamentosas: Aproximación para establecer y evaluar su relevancia clínica. Med Clin (Barc). 2007;129(1):27–35.

https://doi.org/10.1157/13106681

Fujimoto Y, Ohhira M, Miyokawa N, Kitamori S, Kohgo Yu. Acarbose-induced hepatic injury. Lancet. 1998;351:340.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(05)78337-9

Schiano TD, Bellary S V., Cassidy MJ, Thomas RM, Black M. Subfulminant Liver Failure and Severe Hepatotoxicity Caused by Loratadine Use. Ann Intern Med. 1996;125(9):738–40.

https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-125-9-199611010-00006

Li H, Heller D, Leevy C, Zierer K, Klein K. Troglitazone-induced fulminant hepatitis. Report of a case withautopsy findings. J Diabetes Complications. 2000;14:175–7.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S1056-8727(00)00076-3

Cocozzella D, Curciarello J, Corallini O, Olivera A, Albuquerque M, Fraquelli E, et al. Propafenone Hepatotoxicity: Report of Two New Cases. Dig Liver Dis. 2003;48(2):354–7.

Flaharty K, Chase S, Yaghsezian H, Rubin R. Hepatotoxicity Associated with Amiodarone Therapy. Pharmacotherapy. 1989;9(1):39–44.

https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1875-9114.1989.tb04102.x

Shepherd N, Dawson A, Crocker P, Levison D. Granular cells as a marker of early amiodarone hepatotoxicity: a pathological and analytical study. J Clin Pathol. 1987;40:418–23.

https://doi.org/10.1136/jcp.40.4.418

Jeserich M, Ihling C, Allgaier H, Berg P, Heilmann C. Acute liver failure due to enalapril. Herz. 2000;25(7):689–93.

https://doi.org/10.1007/PL00001983

Thomas E, Rosenthal W, Zapiach L, Micci D. Spectrum of Methyldopa Liver Injury. Am J Gastroenterol. 1977;68(2):125–33.

Puppala A, Steinheber F. Fulminant Hepatic Failure Associated with Methyldopa. Am J Gastroenterol. 1977;68(6):578–81.

Pelli N, Setti M, Ceppa P, Toncini C, Indiveri F. Autoimmune hepatitis revealed by atorvastatin. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2003;15(8):921–4.

https://doi.org/10.1097/00042737-200308000-00014

Stolk M, Becx M, Kuypers K, Seldenrijk C. Severe Hepatic Side Effects of Ezetimibe. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;4(7):908–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2006.04.014

Jonas M, Eidson M. Propylthiouracil Hepatotoxicity: two pediatric cases and review of literature. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1988;7(5):776–8.

https://doi.org/10.1097/00005176-198809000-00027

Melamud B, Lurie Y, Goldin E, Levi I, Esayag Y. Methylprednisolone-Induced Liver Injury : A Diagnostic Challenge. IMAJ. 2014;16(3):180–1.

Chen Y, Yang X, Zeckel M, Killian C, Hornbuckle K, Regev A, et al. Risk of hepatic events in patients treated with vancomycin in clinical studies: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Drug saf. 2011;34(1):73–82.

https://doi.org/10.2165/11539560-000000000-00000

Lawrenson R, Seaman H, Sundström A, Williams T, Farmer R. Liver damage associated with minocycline use in acne: a systematic review of the published literature and pharmacovigilance data. Drug Saf. 2000;23(4):333–49.

https://doi.org/10.2165/00002018-200023040-00006

Navarro V, Senior J. Drug-Related Hepatotoxicity. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:731–9.

https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra052270

Prince M, Burt A, Jones D. Hepatitis and liver dysfunction with rifampicin therapy for pruritus in primary biliary cirrhosis. Gut. 2002;50:436–9. https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.50.3.436

Hydes T, Wright M, Jaynes E, Nash K. Nitrofurantoin immune-mediated drug-induced liver injury: a serious complication of a commonly prescribed medication. BMJ Case Rep. 2014;doi:10.1136/bcr-2013-203136.

https://doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2013-203136

Edoute Y, Karmon Y, Roguin A, Ben-Ami H. Fatal liver necrosis associated with the use of nitrofurantoin. Isr Med Assoc J. 2001;3(5):382–3.

Koek G, Striker B, Blok A, Schalm S, Desmet V. Flucloxacillin-associated hepatic iniurv. Liver. 1994;14(5):225–9.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0676.1994.tb00079.x

Clay K, Hanson J, Pope S, Rissmiller R, Pardum P, Banks P. Telithromycin: a possible cause of severe liver damage? Ann Intern Med. 2006;144(6):I42.

Adriaenssens B, Roskams T, Steger P, Van Steenbergen W. Hepatotoxicity related to itraconazole: report of three cases. Acta Clin Belg. 2001;56(6):364–9.

https://doi.org/10.1179/acb.2001.055

Jacobson M, Hanks D, Ferrell L. Fatal Acute Hepatic Necrosis Due to Fluconazole. Am J Med. 1994;96:188–90.

https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-9343(94)90141-4

Chien R, Yang L, Lin P, Liaw Y. Hepatic Injury During Ketoconazole Therapy in Patients With Onychomycosis: A Controlled Cohort Study. Hepatology. 1997;25(1):103–7.

https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.510250119

Van Parys G, Evenepoel C, Van Damme B, Desmet V. Ketoconazole-induced hepatitis: a case with a definite cause-effect relationship. Liver. 1987;7:27–30.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0676.1987.tb00311.x

Akhtar M, Mathieson K, Arey B, Post J, Prevette R, Hillier A, et al. Hepatic histopathology and clinical characteristics associated with antiretroviral therapy in HIV patients without viral hepatitis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;20(12):1194–204.

https://doi.org/10.1097/MEG.0b013e328305b9e0

Macías J, Neukam K, Mallolas J, López-Cortés L, Cartón J, Domingo P, et al. Liver Toxicity of Initial Antiretroviral Drug Regimens Including Two Nucleoside Analogs Plus One Non-Nucleoside Analog or One Ritonavir-Boosted Protease Inhibitor in HIV/HCV-Coinfected Patients. HIV Clin Trials. 2012;13(2):61–9.

https://doi.org/10.1310/hct1302-61

Clarke S, Harrington P, Condon C, Kelleher D, Smith O, Mulcahy F. Late onset hepatitis and prolonged deterioration in hepatic function assciated with nevirapine therapy. Int J STD AIDS. 2000;11(5):336–7.

https://doi.org/10.1177/095646240001100511

https://doi.org/10.1258/0956462001915831

McWhirter D, Kitteringham N, Jones R, Malik H, Park K, Palmer D. Chemotherapy induced hepatotoxicity in metastatic colorectal cancer: A review of mechanisms and outcomes. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2013;88(2):404–15.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.critrevonc.2013.05.011

Choti M. Chemotherapy-associated hepatotoxicity: do we need to be concerned? Ann Surg Oncol. 2009;16:2391–4.

https://doi.org/10.1245/s10434-009-0512-7

Agúndez J, Lucena M, Martínez C, Andrade R, Blanca M, Ayuso P, et al. Assessment of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2011;7(7):817–28.

https://doi.org/10.1517/17425255.2011.574613

Boelsterli U, Zimmerman H, Kretz-Rommel A. Idiosyncratic Liver Toxicity of Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs: Molecular Mechanisms and Pathology. Crit Rev Toxicol. 1995;25(3):207–35.

https://doi.org/10.3109/10408449509089888

Prescott L. Hepatotoxicity of mild analgesics. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1980;10(Suppl 2):373S–379S.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2125.1980.tb01825.x

Black M. Acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. Ann Rev Med. 1984;35:577–93.

https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.me.35.020184.003045

Quartuccio L, Maset M, Soardo G, Avellini C, De Vita S. Acetaminophen-induced liver injury in a woman with febrile flare of systemic lupus erythematosus. J Clin Rheumatol. 2014;20(6):349–51.

Miller D, Dwyer J, Klatskin G. Halothane hepatitis: Benign resolution of a severe lesion. Ann Intern Med. 1978;89:212–5.

https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-89-2-212

Munro H, Snider S, Magee J. Halothane-associated Hepatitis in a 6 year old Boy: Evidence for Native Liver Regeneration Following Failed Treatment with Auxiliary Liver Transplantion. Anesthesiology. 1998;89(2):524–7.

https://doi.org/10.1097/00000542-199808000-00033

Camilleri M, Victorino R, Hodgson H. Halothane aggravation of chronic liver disease. Acta Med Port. 1984;5:194–6.

Colleti R, Trainer T, Krawisz B. Reversible Valproate Fulminant Hepatic Failure. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1986;5(6):990–4.

https://doi.org/10.1097/00005176-198611000-00032

Bicknese A, May W, Hickey W, Dodson W. Early Childhood Hepatocerebral Degeneration Misdiagnosed as Valproate Hepatotoxicity. Ann Neurol. 1992;32:767–75.

https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.410320610

Levy M, Goodman M, Van Dyne B, Sumner H. Granulomatous hepatitis secondary to carbamazepine. Ann Intern Med. 1981;95:64–5.

https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-95-1-64

Horowitz S, Patwardhan R, Marcus E. Hepatotoxic Reactions Associated with Carbamazepine Therapy. 1988;29(2):149–54.

Bhayana H, Appasami S, Thapa B, Das A, Singh K. Lamotrigine-induced Vanishing Bile Duct Syndrome in a Child. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2012;55(6):e147–8.

https://doi.org/10.1097/MPG.0b013e31823c2500

Mecarelli O, Pulitano P, Mingoia M, Ferretti G, Rossi M, Berloco PB, et al. Acute hepatitis associated with lamotrigine and managed with the molecular adsorbents recirculating system (MARS). Epilepsia. 2005;46(10):1687–9.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1528-1167.2005.00269.x

Tostmann A, Boeree M, Aarnoutse R, De Lange W, Van Der Ven A, Dekhuijzen R. Antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity: Concise up-to-date review. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;23(2):192–202.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1746.2007.05207.x

Cramer J, Lohse A, Burchard G, Fischer L, Nashan B, Zimmermann M, et al. Low N-acetyltransferase 2 activity in isoniazid-associated acute hepatitis requiring liver transplantation. Transpl Int. 2010;23:231–3.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1432-2277.2009.00921.x

Yew W, Leung C. Antituberculosis drugs and hepatotoxicity. Respirology. 2006;11:699–707.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1843.2006.00941.x

Lucena M, Andrade J, Fernández M, Pachkoria K, Pelaez G, Durán J, et al. Determinants of the Clinical Expression of Amoxicillin- Clavulanate Hepatotoxicity: A Prospective Series From Spain. Hepatology. 2006;44(4):850–6.

https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.21324

Ortu F, Weimer L, Floridia M, Manconi P. Raltegravir, Tenofovir and Emtricitabine in an HIV-infected Patient with HCV Chronic Hepatitis, NNRTI Intolerance and Protease Inhibitors-Induced Severe Liver toxicity. Eur J Med Res. 2010;15:81–3.

D'Cruz C, Wimmer R, Harcke T, Huff D, Naiman L. Veno-Occlusive Disease of the Liver in Children Following Chemotherapy for Acute Myelocytic Leukemia. Cancer. 1983;52:1803–7.

https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(19831115)52:10<1803::AID-CNCR2820521007>3.0.CO;2-D

Kaplowitz N. Idiosyncratic drug hepatotoxicity. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2005;4(6):489–99.

https://doi.org/10.1038/nrd1750

Schumacher J, Guo G. Mechanistic review of drug-induced steatohepatitis. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2015;289(1):40–7.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2015.08.022

Fathi N, Mitros F, Hoffman J, Straniero N, Labreque D, Koehnke R, et al. Longitudinal measurement of methotrexate liver concentrations does not correlate with liver damage, clinical efficacy, or toxicity during a 3.5 year double blind study in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2002;29(10):2092–8.

Hayashi P, Fontana R, Chalasani N, Stolz A, Talwalkar J, Navarro V, et al. Under-reporting and Poor Adherence to Monitoring Guidelines for Severe Cases of Isoniazid Hepatotoxicity. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015;13:1676–82.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2015.02.024

Rigas B, Rosenfeld L, Barwick K, Enriquez R, Helzberg J, Batsford W, et al. Amiodarone hepatotoxicity. A Clinicopathologic Study of Five Patients. Ann Intern Med. 1986;104:348–51.

https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-104-3-348

Jain D, Bowlus C, James A, Marie R.97. Jain D, Bowlus C, James A, Marie R. Granular Cells as a Marker of Early Amiodarone Hepatotoxicity. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2000;31(3):241–3.

https://doi.org/10.1097/00004836-200010000-00012

Lupon-Rosés J, Simó-Canonge R, Lu-Cortez L, Permanyer-Miralda G, Allende-Monclús H. Probable Early Acute Hepatitis with Parenteral Amiodarone. Clin Cardiol. 1986;9(5):223–5.

https://doi.org/10.1002/clc.4960090512

Onakpoya I, Heneghan C, Aronson J. Post-marketing withdrawal of 462 medicinal products because of adverse drug reactions : a systematic review of the world literature. BMC Med. 2016;14(10):1–11.

https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-016-0553-2.

Publicado
2017-12-19
Cómo citar
Cano Paniagua, A., Cifuentes Posada, L. M., & Amariles Muñoz, P. J. (2017). Toxicidad hepática causada por medicamentos: revisión estucturada. Revista Colombiana De Gastroenterología, 32(4), 337-348. https://doi.org/10.22516/25007440.177
Sección
Revisión de tema