El cannabis en la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal: un resumen narrativo

  • Camilo Castañeda Cardona Neuroeconomix
  • Pieralessandro Lasalvia Pontificia Universidad Javeriana
  • Alexandra Ferreriros Hospital Universitario San Ignacio
  • Camila Pantoja Ruiz Hospital Universitario San Ignacio
  • Paula Restrepo Jimenez Hospital Universitario San Ignacio
  • Diego Rosselli Pontificia Universidad Javeriana
Palabras clave: cannabis, marihuana medicinal, colitis ulcerativa, enfermedad de Crohn, enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal

Resumen

Introducción: si bien los cannabinoides se han utilizado durante varios años, apenas recientemente se han descrito los descubrimientos sobre sus mecanismos de acción y blancos terapéuticos, así como las alteraciones en el sistema endocannabinoide, observadas en diversas enfermedades y condiciones que se manifiestan con dolor, inflamación, patologías autoinmunes y distintos desórdenes específicos de los órganos. La enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal (EII) agrupa dos condiciones idiopáticas crónicas con patogénesis incierta, en las que se ha identificado que una desregulación del sistema inmune desempeña un papel importante. Así, pues se necesita desarrollar tratamientos alternativos para estos pacientes, ya que solo una minoría de ellos alcanza una remisión de la enfermedad. Nuestro objetivo es revisar las evidencias recientes relacionadas con el uso de cánnabis en la colitis ulcerativa (CU) y en la enfermedad de Crohn (EC).

Métodos: se realizó una revisión narrativa focalizada, a partir de las bases de datos de búsqueda de Pubmed y Embase. Los artículos pertinentes fueron revisados y resumidos en forma narrativa.

Resultados: los dos componentes principales del cannabis, el cannabidiol (CBD) y el tetrahidrocannabinol (THC), han sido estudiados extensivamente y han probado causar efectos antiinflamatorios y antinociceptivos. Se han descrito ampliamente las propiedades de estos componentes en el control sintomático de la CU y de la EC. No obstante, se sugieren estudios de alta calidad para seguir evaluando la eficacia y la seguridad del uso del cannabis en pacientes con la EII.

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Biografía del autor/a

Camilo Castañeda Cardona, Neuroeconomix

Gerente de proyectos 

 

Pieralessandro Lasalvia, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

Médico general, estudiante de doctorado en epidemiología clínica 

 

Alexandra Ferreriros, Hospital Universitario San Ignacio

Médica general, residente de neurología 

 

Camila Pantoja Ruiz, Hospital Universitario San Ignacio

Medica general, residente de neurología

 

Paula Restrepo Jimenez, Hospital Universitario San Ignacio

Medico general, residente de oftalmología

 

Diego Rosselli, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

Profesor Departamento de epidemiología clínica y bioestadística 

 

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Publicado
2020-03-27
Cómo citar
Castañeda Cardona, C., Lasalvia, P., Ferreriros, A., Pantoja Ruiz, C., Restrepo Jimenez, P., & Rosselli, D. (2020). El cannabis en la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal: un resumen narrativo. Revista Colombiana De Gastroenterología, 35(1), 104-113. https://doi.org/10.22516/25007440.407
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Revisión de tema