Diagnóstico y tratamiento actual de la gastroparesia: una revisión sistemática de la literatura

Palabras clave: Vaciamiento gástrico, gastroparesia, dismotilidad gástrica

Resumen

El vaciamiento gástrico normal refleja un esfuerzo coordinado entre diferentes regiones del estómago y el duodeno, y también una modulación extrínseca por parte del sistema nervioso central y factores del intestino distal. Los principales eventos relacionados con el vaciamiento gástrico normal incluyen el fondo de relajación para acomodar la comida, contracciones antrales para triturar partículas grandes de comida, contracción pilórica para permitir la liberación de comida del estómago y coordinación antropiloroduodenal de los fenómenos motores de relajación. La dismotilidad gástrica incluye el vaciamiento tardío del estómago (gastroparesia), vaciamiento gástrico acelerado (síndrome de dumping) y otras disfunciones motoras, como el deterioro del fondo de distensión, que se encuentra con mayor frecuencia en la dispepsia funcional. Los síntomas de la gastroparesia son inespecíficos y pueden simular otros trastornos estructurales.

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Biografía del autor/a

Viviana Mayor, Universidad Javeriana

Médico internista y docente, Clínica Versalles, Universidad Javeriana. Cali, Colombia.

Diego Aponte MD, Clínica Universitaria Colombia

Gastroenterólogo. Coordinador área clínica universitaria Colsanitas

Robin Prieto-Ortíz, Clínica Universitaria Colsanitas

Fellow gastroenterología clínica Colsanitas

Emmanuel Orjuela, Clínica Versalles - Cali

Médico asistencial UCI

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Figura 1. Características fisiopatológicas de la gastroparesia. CIC: células intersticiales de Cajal. Adaptado de: Reddymasu SC, Sarosiek I, McCallum RW. Severe gastroparesis: medical therapy or gastric electrical stimulation. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;8(2):117-24.
Publicado
2020-12-21
Cómo citar
Mayor Barrera, V., Aponte Martin, D. M., Prieto Ortíz, R. G., & Orjuela Quiroga, J. E. (2020). Diagnóstico y tratamiento actual de la gastroparesia: una revisión sistemática de la literatura. Revista Colombiana De Gastroenterología, 35(4), 471-484. https://doi.org/10.22516/25007440.561
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