Estrés, depresión, ansiedad y el hábito alimentario en personas con síndrome de intestino irritable

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.22516/25007440.899

Palabras clave:

Síndrome de Intestino Irritable, eje cerebro-intestino, microbiota, hábito alimentario, estrés, depresión, ansiedad

Resumen

El síndrome de intestino irritable (SII) es un trastorno caracterizado por cambios en el hábito intestinal y afecta al 30% de la población mundial. Aunque se ha encontrado una conexión entre el eje cerebro-microbiota intestinal, el desarrollo del SII y su asociación con la prevalencia de trastornos mentales, las posibles implicaciones que tienen en el hábito alimentario de las personas no son claras. Este artículo tuvo como objetivo explorar la relación entre el estrés, depresión, ansiedad, trastornos mentales y hábitos alimentarios en pacientes con SII. Se realizó una exploración bibliográfica en los motores de búsqueda PubMed, ScienceDirect y BVS. Se encontró que las personas con SII pueden presentar anormalidades en la microestructura cerebral y alteraciones en la red cerebro-intestino asociadas a una mayor duración de los síntomas gastrointestinales y el aumento de la comorbilidad afectiva. También se sugiere una relación en distintas vías entre el estrés, depresión y ansiedad, síntomas de SIII y cambios en los hábitos de alimentación. Todo lo anterior puede motivar prácticas de alimentación restrictivas, cambios en el apetito, subadecuación de nutrientes incluso en algunos casos por el mismo manejo nutricional y, en general, deterioro de la calidad de vida de las personas con SII. Se sugiere un manejo integral que no solo implique un manejo farmacológico para los síntomas de SII y los estados de ansiedad y depresión, sino que también incluya un manejo psicológico, manejo nutricional personalizado y recomendaciones de mejora de los estilos de vida como la práctica de actividad física y manejo del estrés.

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Biografía del autor/a

Mayra Sofía Vergara Alvira, Universidad Militar Central

Nutricionista dietista de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Nutricionista clínica, Bogotá, Colombia.

Laura Marcela Ahumada Ossa, Centro especializado en el manejo integral de la patología endocrina y en Medicina de la obesidad y trastorno de la conducta alimentaria (CIOMED)

Nutricionista Dietista, Candidata a Magister en Fisiología con énfasis en investigación. Nutricionista Dietista de consulta externa. Bogotá, Colombia.

Elpidia Poveda Espinosa, Universidad Nacional de Colombia

Nutricionista Dietista, Magíster en Biología, Doctora Ciencias Biológicas. Profesor Asociado en Unibversidad Nacional. Bogotá, Colombia.

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Figura 2. Alteración del eje cerebro-intestino-microbiota en el SII.

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2022-12-21

Cómo citar

Vergara Alvira, M. S., Ahumada Ossa, L. M., & Poveda Espinosa, E. (2022). Estrés, depresión, ansiedad y el hábito alimentario en personas con síndrome de intestino irritable. Revista Colombiana De Gastroenterología, 37(4), 369–382. https://doi.org/10.22516/25007440.899

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