Métodos diagnósticos en hipertensión portal

Palabras clave: Hipertensión portal, Sistema porta, Cirrosis hepática

Resumen

La hipertensión portal es un síndrome caracterizado por el incremento en el gradiente de presión portal, definido por la diferencia entre la presión de la porta y la vena cava inferior. Esta presión depende del flujo venoso y la resistencia vascular. En los pacientes cirróticos estas dos variables están alteradas de manera suprafisiológica, inicialmente por la lesión estructural dependiente de fibrosis y los nódulos de regeneración y posteriormente por cambios dinámicos vasculares que causan vasoconstricción intrahepática y vasodilatación esplácnica, lo cual explica las manifestaciones sistémicas de la cirrosis. La importancia de la hipertensión portal radica en la frecuencia y severidad de las complicaciones asociadas, especialmente la hemorragia variceal y otras como ascitis, peritonitis bacteriana espontanea, síndrome hepatorrenal y encefalopatía hepática. El objetivo de este artículo es realizar una revisión actualizada sobre el uso de las pruebas diagnósticas invasivas y no invasivas disponibles para el estudio de la hipertensión portal y su aplicación en la práctica clínica.

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Biografía del autor/a

Octavio Muñoz, Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe

Medicina Interna, Hepatología Clínica y Trasplante Hepático, Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe. Universidad de Antioquia. Medellín

José Ferrusquía-Acosta , Hospital Clínic de Barcelona

Unitat d'Hemodinàmica Hepàtica. Institut Clínic de Malalties Digestives i Metabòliques (ICMDM). Hospital Clínic de Barcelona. Barcelona.

Laura Serna-Patiño, Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe

Médico general en Unidad de Hospitalización. Medellín

Andres Cárdenas, Hospital Clinic of Barcelona

GI/LiverUnit, Institute of Digestive Diseases & Metabolism. Hospital Clinic of Barcelona. Associate Professor of Medicine, University of Barcelona. Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS) y Centro de Investigaciones en Red Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd), España. Barcelona, España.

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Figura 2. Fisiopatología de la hipertensión portal. AII: Angiotentesina; NE: Norepinefrina; VP: Vasopresina
Publicado
2021-06-29
Cómo citar
Muñoz Maya, O., Ferrusquía-Acosta , J., Serna-Patiño , L. M., & Cárdenas, A. (2021). Métodos diagnósticos en hipertensión portal. Revista Colombiana De Gastroenterología, 36(2), 218-226. https://doi.org/10.22516/25007440.692
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